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Tuesday, August 9

  1. page test edited we already have ..... we should do...yes, I'd like This section of AmIn 310 is delivered complet…
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    This section of AmIn 310 is delivered completely online in an asynchronous format. This means that there are not set times that all students must be logged in at the same time. This, however, does not mean that there aren’t deadlines for assignments and discussion forum postings. Please make sure to add thisnote when postings and assignments are due.
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Saturday, August 6

  1. page True Native American Film Festivals Are Rare edited Lucas Goose April 10, 2011 AM IN 210 True Native American Film Festivals Are Rare It is very…
    Lucas Goose
    April 10, 2011
    AM IN 210
    True Native American Film Festivals Are Rare
    It is very important who is in control of the Native Film Festival, without any Native control it makes it invalid and that should take the title away of being a Native Film Festival. (1) “Organizers control what is said about the film festival, what films are selected, who is invited, the theme, etc. If it is "a film festival", then anyone should be able to submit without a native category. If its native related, then it should be Native produced/written/directed/acted--"Telling Our Own Stories" and organized by natives as well.” (7) “But Indian fests I think should be work of Native American’s to showcase to the community.” (6) Being Native controlled is the only way a Native Film Festival should be put in that category otherwise it should be just a Independent Film Festival meant for anyone no matter what race. (1)
    This is what could be considered a Native film but it shouldn’t if (1)“A film with the only element of native is one actor should NOT be considered a native film.” (7) The film Dances With Wolves would be a Non Native film since it was done by a white person. Sure they had Natives in the film but it was meant for Hollywood and its not written or made by Natives and is misrepresenting Natives in a negative way. (2,18) An example of a film that was correctly categorized as Independent Film with a Native actor Eric Schweig in it as the love interest was Big Eden. (4, 17) Making Native American films that the mass people will see will take time and for people to realize they exist and are just as interesting as a Non Native Films in the Mainstream Media. (5)
    Getting rid of the old stereotypes of Native Americans, Johnny Depp is trying to show who we really are so at least one big name is trying to help the little voices in this country. (12) Having a film festival showing Native’s as directors, producers, actors, and or anything related to the film business is really great to show that we still exist and are like normal people and not a stereotype that Hollywood has shown us to be. With that we are showing what true Natives are like and can do. (4,8, and 10) Smoke Signals made fun and pointed out serotypes made it funnier and allowing the audience to realize those stereotypes aren’t true. (16,9)
    It does matter who is in control of the festivals or there’s a chance something can be misrepresented such as Talking Stick Film Festival. (4,10) “Native Americans Film Festivals are rare with some are just using the word Native so they can be more unique, it may be done by non-natives with some input by natives.” (2) A very good example would be the Talking Stick Film Festival, which was organized by non-natives with some Native input. (1,2 and 3) Most of the films that are native made are in the Independent Film category and not many people will hear or even see them regardless if in a Native Film Festival. (1,2 and 3) Mary Goose, Lucas Goose , and Ava Hamilton have stated they will not return to this particular film festival. Ava didn’t want to be part of it anymore due to the fact it wasn’t what she thought it was going to be, that it was run by Non Natives. (19,7,1,3)
    In the past they were rare but now slowly native run film festivals are growing by numbers each year and more Natives are inspired to make films and start working in the Mainstream and Native Independent Films. “Native Festival celebrates the creative energy of Native American directors, producers, writers, actors, musicians, cultural activists, and all the others who support their endeavors.” (13)
    The American Indian Film Institute that hosts a Film Festival every year is one they focus is on anything related to Native Americans. It doesn't have to be films/videos done by Native Americans. (15, 3) Making the films for both when making for both races you le something when you try to make for the masses who want to watch the mainstream Hollywood Movies (1) “Develop Indian and non-Indian audiences for this work.”(11) As long as the subject of the film or people in film just have to be Native Americans more often Hollywood films/videos tend to be shown there. (15, 3) No longer does Independent Films tend not to be shown there. Such as and example of Sundance Film Festival its place were its lost its meaning as a independent film festival having expensive films and people in Hollywood trying to get in this type of genre. (3)
    Although Sundance doesn’t claim to be for Natives its main focus is in all Independent films from around the world, so its okay for them to be the way they are. (1, 14) For Example they showed movies like Layer Cake (Layer Cake) that was about a British Drug lord trying to get out of the business by doing one last job. (1,20)
    What is rare is Native Run Film Festivals. They are rare and an example of one true Native Film festival controlled by Natives was Gift Human-Made, Human-Made Gift, held in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1995. The Project Coordinator and the person who started it was Mary Goose. The people that helped were all Natives. (8)
    Reference:
    1. Goose, Lucas. Personal Interview. 11-15 April. 2011 (with himself on the toilet with a mirror.)
    2. Goose, Lucas. “Oral 1 Essay” West Des Moines, Iowa, 2011. 5 Pages.
    3. Goose, Mary. Personal Interview. 14 April. 2011
    4. Goose, Rean. Personal Interview. 12 April. 2011
    5. Proudstar, Jon. Personal Interview. 13 April. 2011
    6. Farmer, Gary. Personal Interview. 12 April. 2011
    7. Hamilton, Ava. Personal Interview. 13 April. 2011
    8. Goose, Mary. Gift Human-Made, Human Gift, Des Moines, Iowa Film Festival.
    9. Eyre, Chris. Personal Interview. 14 April. 2011
    10. The International Database of Film Festivals, Short & Independent Films. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. <http://www.festivalfocus.org/>.
    11. "Overview and History." American Indian Film Institute. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.aifisf.com/history.php>.
    12. http://www.monstersandcritics.com/people/news/article_1613167.php/Johnny-Depp-Native-Americans-badly-portrayed-in-films
    13. "2011 Native American Film Video Festival - Native Networks." Native <http://www.nativenetworks.si.edu/eng/blue/nafvf_11.html>
    14. "Native Film." Sundance Institute. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. <http://www.sundance.org/programs/native-film/>.
    15. http://www.aifisf.com/aiff/AIFF_entry_form_2011.pdf
    16. "Telling Their Own Stories: Native American Stereotypes in Art | Cultural Survival." Cultural Survival | Partnering with Indigenous Peoples to Defend Their Lands, Languages and Cultures. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/telling-their-own-stories-native-american-stereotypes-art>.
    17. "Big Eden (2000) - IMDb." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Web. 16 Apr. 2011. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0212815/>.
    18. Buffett, Peter. "Dances with Wolves (1990) - IMDb." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Web. 13 Apr. 2011. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0099348/>.
    19. "Festival Staff | Talking Stick Film Festival | Santa Fe, New Mexico | Festival Staff | TSFF | Santa Fe, NM | A New Native Film Festival and Conference Is Launched." Talking Stick Film Festival | Santa Fe, New Mexico | TSFF | Santa Fe, NM | A New Native Film Festival and Conference Is Launched. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. <http://www.talkingstickfilmfestival.org/fst-stf.html>.
    20. "Layer Cake (2004) - IMDb." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Web. 15 Apr. 2011. <http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0375912/>.
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Wednesday, May 4

  1. page Sacagawea edited Sacagawea Born 1788, Sacagawea is remembered by Americans today as the Native American slave who …
    Sacagawea
    Born 1788, Sacagawea is remembered by Americans today as the Native American slave who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition as an interpreter and terrain guide. It is important to explain the portion of her life helping the explorers Lewis and Clark but is equally important to describe her life before meeting Lewis and Clark including her life after the expedition. Starting with pre-expedition history will help form a picture for the beliefs and background of Sacagawea.
    Sacagawea was part of the Shoshone tribe in present day Idaho. At age 12 she was kidnapped by a band of roaming Indians during a battle. At age 13 she was traded to a trapper from Quebec named Toussaint Charbonneau. Not much is known about the life of Sacagawea before 13 years of age. The trapper is reported to have taken her back to his village near present-day North Dakota. The next for years Sacagawea lived with Toussaint and his other wife. Sacagawea was pregnant with her first child when the Corps of Discovery (Company of Lewis and Clark) arrived near the village in 1804.
    When William Clark and Meriwether Lewis came to the village where Toussaint and Sacagawea lived, they began interviewing local trappers that could help them through their expedition up the Missouri River. The Corps of Discovery chose Toussaint because of Sacagawea’s connection to the Shoshone Indians. These Indians would be able to help Lewis and Clark at the headwaters of the Missouri River and Sacagawea would be able to translate and guide for the explorers.
    During the exploration Sacagawea aided Lewis and Clark in translation and guidance through the tough terrain. Her first child was born shortly after the expedition was started. Throughout the adventure there are many stories of how Sacagawea helped Lewis and Clark. She was also valued for her female presence among the explorers. Three years after the exploration Sacagawea and her husband moved to St. Louis, Missouri (1809). Their first born son was enrolled in an academy and taught by Clark himself.
    Sacagawea is thought to have died around 1812. The details are unknown but some experts believe she was killed by sickness. Her husband was thought to have died as well in an unrelated incident soon after. Their first born son as well as their newborn daughter were adopted by William Clark. The death of Sacagawea is shrouded in mystery, some experts believe she died in 1812 but others believe she died in 1884. The only evidence for the 1884 theory is oral tradition, this date would leave her at 96 yrs old at death and this is very unlikely. For the next 200 years Sacagawea has been remembered for her courage and intelligence in United States exploration among other things.
    Sacagawea is still considered by many to be an American Heroine. The contributions made by her have inspired woman rights movements in the United States and even a coin has been made in her likeness to commemorate Sacagawea for her efforts. It is important to understand Sacagawea’s Native American background to understand her interactions with the Lewis and Clark expedition. We know little about what went on besides what we can read from Lewis and Clark’s journals of the exploration but we can be certain that Sacagawea sacrificed much to help. Sacagawea will be remembered by the United States for centuries to come, and hopefully Native American Indians across the nation will remember what she sacrificed as well.
    (1) Weiser, Kathy. "Sacagawea - Leading Lewis and Clark." Native American Legends (2010): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-sacagawea.html>.
    -A website providing a brief overview of Sacagawea’s adventures with Lewis and Clark. Background information on Sacagawea’s life is also provided in the article. This is a valuable starting resource for researching Sacagawea. The source provides hard facts and provides little complex analysis.
    (2) Butterfield, Bonnie. "Sacagawea: From Captive to Expedition Interpreter to Great American Legend- Her Life and Death." Native Americans (1998): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://bonniebutterfield.com/NativeAmericans.html>.
    -This website provides firsthand accounts from the journal of Lewis. The entries describe the slave, interpreter and heroine Sacagawea. The article is a good way to familiarize yourself with the courageous acts of Sacagawea.
    (3) Marks, Lara. "Sacagawea As an Evolving Symbol of American Indian Women." (1998): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://www.mathcs.bethel.edu/~gossett/DiscreteMathWithProof/sacajawea/sacajawea.html>.
    -This website provides brief background information along with other names Sacagawea can be found under in other historical contexts. The article also provides reasons for Sacagawea boost in popularity in the 20th century. This source is a great value to understanding the past and contemporary history of Sacagawea.
    (4) Lewis, Jone. "Sacagawea (Sacajawea) Guide to the West." Women's History (2011): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://womenshistory.about.com/od/sacagawea/a/sacagawea.htm>.
    -This article provides a brief and concise description of Sacagawea’s interaction with Lewis and Clark, including an after expedition summary. This source is helpful in further understanding her relationships with the explorers Lewis and Clark
    (5) A&E Television Networks, . "Sacagawea Biography." Bio True Story (2011): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://www.biography.com/articles/Sacagawea-9468731>.
    -A brief biography of the life of Sacagawea before her encounters with Lewis and Clark. A valuable source for understanding more about the Native American lifestyle of Sacagawea._GoBack
    (6) Garamone, Jim. "Sacagawea: The Saga of a Shoshone." American Indian Heritage Month (2000): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://www.defense.gov/specials/nativeamerican01/saga.html>.
    -A well written tribute article to Sacagawea and her contributions to the expansion of the United States. This article provides insight from current writers and is a great resource for beginning researchers of Sacagawea
    (7) Kubic, Barbara. "Sacagawea: An Annotated Bibliography." Battelle, n.d. Web. 13 Apr 2011. <(7) http://www.visittri-cities.com/includes/media/docs/Sacagawea-Report-Merged.DOC>.
    -This web address leads to a report done on Sacagawea. The report is a full list of annotated bibliographic sources. This resource could be very useful for anyone who is interested in books or articles about Sacagawea. Very in depth annotated bibliography.
    (8) Sacagawea." (1998): n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/ewb_13/ewb_13_05661.html>.
    -This source provides a brief summary on the capture of Sacagawea and her time spent aiding the explorers Lewis and Clark on their journey. The article is short but accurate.
    (9) Anderson, Irving. "History Commentary - The Sacagawea Mystique: Her Age, Name, Role and Final Destiny." Colombia Magazine 13.3 (1999): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://columbia.washingtonhistory.org/anthology/explorersbysea/sacajaweaMystique.aspx>.
    -An extremely valuable and well written source attempting to correct America’s public image of the icon Sacagawea. The author connects firsthand accounts from two centuries ago about Sacagawea to show the amount of respect the people truly had for her.
    (10) Talbot, Margaret. "What we know about her: She was a teenage mother and a valued interpreter for Lewis and Clark. What we don't know about her: Almost everything else.." National Geogrphic Magazine 0.0 (2003): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0302/feature4/index.html>.
    -A long article written by National Geographic about Sacagawea. The article talks about how much we don’t know about Sacagawea. The article serves the purpose of getting the reader to think outside the box.
    (11) Buckley, Jay. "Sacagawea." History.com 0.0 (2009): Web. 13 Apr 2011. <http://www.history.com/topics/sacagawea>.
    -A historical look at Sacagawea’s life and contribution to the Lewis and Clark expedition. The articles reveals a few new facts about her life and provides videos to watch with expert testimonies.
    (12)"Sacagawea." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/515171/Sacagawea>.
    - Brittanica Academic Addition provides a very concise background on Sacagawea’s life. Well written and easy to understand.
    (13) Hansen, M. "Sacagawea." n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://webpages.sdsmt.edu/~mhansen/SACAGAWEA.htm>.
    - This article provides a well cited testament to the contributions of Sacagawea throughout her life. The article also discusses her impact on future generations through her courageous actions.
    (14) Talbot, Margaret. "Searching for Sacagawea." National Geographic (2006): n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0302/feature4/fulltext.html>.
    - A national geographic article commemorating the anniversary of of Sacagawea with a lengthy article about the life and achievements of Sacagawea. A good article for additional information.
    (15) Butterfield, Bonnie . "What Happened to Sacagawea's People?." Native Americans n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://sacagawea.bonniebutterfield.com/>.
    - This source provides information on the history of Sacagawea’s tribe after Sacagawea left the tribe. The article is complete and provides a good reference point for other aspects of Sacagawea’s life.
    (16) "Sacagawea coin finds no love after two years." USA Today (2002): n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2002/05/18/coin.htm>.
    - A contemporary article describing the drop in popularity of the Sacagawea dollar coin in the United States. The article provides insight on why the “love” for the Sacagawea dollar ran out. Another article to familiarize oneself with the contemporary feelings on Sacagawea.
    (17) Spitznass, Jill. "Sacagawea legend gets an upgrade Production re-spins well-traveled tale from Native American girl’s perspective." Portland Tribune (2009): n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2002/05/18/coin.htm>.
    - This article claims Sacagawea to be a woman misunderstood by contemporary society. The author attempts to uncover a few unknown facts about Sacagawea and to shed more light her situation overall with Lewis and Clark. The source is a good addition to Sacagawea research.
    (18) "Sacagawea." IPTV (2001): n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sacagawea.htm>.
    - PBS article on Sacagawea and her time spent with Lewis and Clark. The source is short but accurate, good for attaining basic information on Sacagawea.
    (19) "Sacagawea." n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nwa/sacajawea.html>.
    - This source provides information about Sacagawea as a notable woman ancestor. The information is basic and useful for surface details.
    (20)"Sacajawea (Sacagawea): Guide for Lewis and Clark." Zoom Explorers n. pag. Web. 14 Apr 2011. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/page/s/sacajawea.shtml>.
    - This short article provides a brief summary on the life of Sacagawea. The website is not a complete biography and only provides limited information.

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    9:12 am

Sunday, May 1

  1. page home edited Native American Bow Making By: Jason Danner Summary: There are many types or styles of Nat…

    Native American Bow Making
    By: Jason Danner
    Summary:
    There are many types or styles of Native American bows. Along with the many types comes multiple different ways of making them. The history of the Native American Bow is fascinating in that it became a necessity to the Indians. Without the bow, everyday hunting would have been less successful. The bow and arrow changed the way Native Americans hunted for the better. More successful hunts mean more food to bring home.
    The main two types of bows that the Native Americans made and used were the flatbow, and the longbow. Both played major roles in shaping Native American culture. There are many different designs for both bows, but the shape and strength of the bow in the end determine whether it is a flatbow or longbow. Styles of bows are designed for purposes. Small bows are often great for ambush hunting in woods, or heavy brush, but normally give up strength in the end. Big bows are by nature more powerful but are more cumbersome as well. Each bow has its purpose. Native Americans knew this many years ago. The bow has been around for many centuries, and its designs are still used today. Different woods were selected depending on availability of wood in the habitat.
    The Longbow as its name implies is a long bow from tip to tip. It doesn’t have a designated with however. It can be a wide bow or a narrow bow depending on the width you prefer. The picture on the right shows the differences in the wide verses the narrow bow styles. The long bow can be anywhere from three and one half feet long to over six feet long. As you can see, its up to the builders preference. Native Americans did not use templates or tapemeasures, so every bow was unique in its shape. Size and strength would depend on the feel of the wood and how the bow felt in the hands of the hunter. Most would prefer hardwood to softwood when making the bow. Other designs can be done to the longbow as well like making a recurve longbow. This would be done by putting the bow in boiling water and curving the tips of the bow. A recurve bow has more strength than a regular long bow because more tension can be put on the wood when the bow is drawn back. Sanding becomes your friend as well as time. Native Americans finished the bows by rubbing them in deer or bear fat and deer brains. Then they would set them by a fire _GoBackAmericans also would wrap string or fibers from plants around the bows to add strength and longevity to the bow. This process is known as sinew backing. Strings were made from the same things as the backing on the bow. They could be plant fibers or animal intestines.
    The other popular bow I mentioned earlier was the flatbow. The flatbow is more rectangular in shape as compared to the long bow. It is wider, and deeper in the handle. The longbow has more of a D-shaped look. The flatbow is made essentially the same way as the longbow is, but the flatbow is a non-recurved bow. A bow cannot be recurved and called a flatbow. The picture on the right displays a standard American Flatbow.
    Native American bow making is a fascinating art. It takes time and skills to complete. Another thing to take away is that the design is really up to the builder. The bow is designed for the tasks at hand whether it is on the plains or woodlands in North America.
    Annotated Bibliography:
    http://www.wildwoodsurvival.com/survival/hunting/bowandarrow/trm/trm3-1pg08.html
    This website has good information with regards to types of wood that is best for making a bow by hand. It also shows different styles of bows one can make.
    http://www.uiowa.edu/~osa/learn/ancient/archery.htm
    American Indian Archery talks about the history behind the making of bows and arrows. It also talks about benefits regarding the use of a bow by the Indians. Materials for bow making are also talked about in this article.
    http://www.nmarchaeology.org/assets/files/how_to_make_a_bow.pdf
    This website is a bow making tutorial. It has information on making a Native American replica bow. It is very easy to follow and also has useful background information.
    http://www.primitivearcher.com/articles/simpledbow.html
    This website suggests that “whitewood” is the best wood for making a bow. It shows information on building a standard D-bow. 1,2,3… step instructions are fairly easy to follow, however not many pictures to demonstrate.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatbow
    Wikipedia offers simple info on building a flatbow, another style of bow that the Native Americans used. It talks about the differences between the flatbow and the D-bow in general. Wikipedia also makes statements regarding advantages of the flatbow.
    http://www.google.com/#q=native+american+bow+making&hl=en&prmd=ivns&source=univ&tbm=vid&tbo=u&sa=X&ei=C2WjTcadGKa10QGz_Kj7BA&ved=0CFUQqwQ&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=15552c02145427b5
    This link offers viewers a chance to look up videos on youtube for making bows. Visual aids can really help someone interested in making their own bow.
    http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Bow-and-Arrow
    Wikihow offers a step by step process for making a simple Native American bow. Not the simplest instructions to follow with few pictures, but talks about wood types and what is used for the string.
    http://www.primitiveways.com/cordage_backed_bow.html
    Author gives his perspective on webpage. He also talks about the history of bows. The cordage bow is mad a little different than other Native American bows.
    http://www.ehow.com/about_4671853_did-indians-make-bows-arrows_.html
    Ehow tells readers how Native Americans made bows. It talks about the history of bow making and the general timeframe of the bow.
    http://native-american-bow-making.blogspot.com/2010/03/native-american-bow-making-picture-of_9068.html
    Native American website offering techniques to building bows. Contemporary pictures and other links are available.
    http://library.thinkquest.org/27344/history.htm
    History and the making of the bow offer exactly what it says. It talks about history and making bows. It also compares and talks about other culture’s bows.
    http://www.osageorange.com/Roughing_out_T.html
    This website has pictures as well as good links to making a bow out of an Osage tree. You can see how labor intensive making a bow like the Native Americans was.
    http://www.kumeyaay.info/indian_bows_arrows.html?http%3A//www.kumeyaay.info/indian_bows_arrows/old_indian_bow.html
    This website talks about the age of Native American bows. Another bow is introduced as the ancient California bow.
    http://paleoplanet69529.yuku.com/forums/18
    A blog spot comparing other bows to Native American Bows. This blog page also has many pictures of different types of bows.
    http://www.easterrossfieldarchers.org/flatbow.htm
    This website talks about the Native American Flatbow. It goes into details about the specific design of the flatbow and how the mechanics of the bow are utilized.
    http://www.native-net.org/indians/american-indian-bows.html
    This website goes into detail about how essential the bow was to Native Americans. A little is talked about the age and the history.
    http://www.missouritrading.com/books-bows-arrows-atlatls.htm
    This is a website that gives directions to books and encyclopedias about Native American Bow making. This is a great source of accurate information.
    http://www.nativewayonline.com/primarch.htm
    This website offers simple ways of making Native American Bows. It gives a materials list and basic methods.
    http://www.instructables.com/id/Making-a-Willow-Bow/
    This website talks about making a Native American willow bow. It has plenty of pictures and has step-by-step instructions.
    http://www.archerytalk.com/vb/showthread.php?t=584410&page=1
    This is a blog spot talking about another type of bow. It’s a good place to go to ask questions about making bows.

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    9:01 pm

Wednesday, April 27

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